THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 249 instruction should proceed from the_universal to the particular from undifferentiated wholes to their constituent elements ; in another passage he takes the opposite view that " J2jfe£as£QSsibk_, instruction should be given^ through _the senses^ jind, shoulcL But such inconsistencies are not common. The religious bent of his mind inclined him to lay the main stress on the idealistic view of mental development as an evolution from within. In consequence of this, the sensationalist view plays only a subordinate part in his thinking. He knows how important it is that the mind should begin with sense-given facts either with actual objects or with pictorial representations of them and yet he recognizes that even from the start these facts are more than they seem, that indeed they are expressions of the universal and spiritual which the fully-developed mind will one day comprehend at their proper value. It is this that makes him insist that languagejl^i^rwj^ (what is no less important)T^£iactSLsbou1.d ;igs are the_substance , ' * he says, " words the accident." This isTEeTsensationalist doctrine, and he has no sooner stated it than he proceeds to correct it by drawing the illogical conclusion: " Both should therefore be presented to the human under- standing at the same tiine."f In effect, true education is not a matter of mere facts qr mere words, mere particulars or mere universals, but of facts and words, particulars and universals, conjoined in the process of learning from the beginning. The predominance of the idealistic view is most clearly shown in the general method of instruction he advocates. The idea from which he commences is the fundamental sameness of the universe in every phase of nature and in every activity of man. From this he makes a twofold deduction : (i) that the exact order of instruction must be borrowed from nature ; and (2) that since nature is uniform in its operations the same method of instruction must be employed for all sciences, the same for all arts and the same for all languages. Here Comenius is in the grasp of the mystical view of the universe which tends to obliterate all the distinctions of ordinary thought; and if he had been strictly logical in its application he would have found himself in difficulty immediately he tried to relate his principles to practice. There is a natural element in the development of the child, and so far * Keatinge, p. 139. t Kcatinge, p. 115.